http://romeka.rgf.rs/items/browse?tags=%D0%B0%D1%81%D0%B8%D0%BD%D1%85%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B8+%D0%BC%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%80%D0%B8&output=atom <![CDATA[ROmeka@RGF]]> 2020-02-24T03:35:35+01:00 Omeka http://romeka.rgf.rs/items/show/640 <![CDATA[Развој алгоритма за повећање енергетске ефикасности система трачних транспортера на површинским коповима]]> 2018-09-11T21:02:04+02:00

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Развој алгоритма за повећање енергетске ефикасности система трачних транспортера на површинским коповима
Development of the Algorithm for Energy Efficiency Improvement of Belt Conveyor System on Open Pit Mines

Аутор

Ристић Лепосава

Предметна одредница

трачни транспортери
моделовање
оптимално управљање
електромоторни погони са регулисаном брзином
асинхрони мотори
анализа и пројектовање система
рударство
управљање на бази фази логике
SCADA системи
conveyors
modeling
optimal control
adjustable speed drives
induction motors
system analysis and design
mining industry
fuzzy logic control
SCADA systems

Издавач

Универзитет у Београду - Електротехнички факултет

Друга одговорна лица

Јефтенић Борислав
Ђуровић Жељко
Игњатовић Драган

Опис

Potrošnja električne energije je u porastu zbog stalne potrebe za poboljšanjem kvaliteta života. Energetska efikasnost je danas jedan od ključnih elementa u energetskoj politici svih razvijenih zemalja sveta, jer doprinosi unapređenju ekonomije u celini, i produžava vek korišćenja neobnovljivih izvora energije, iz kojih se danas dobija najveći deo električne energije. U mnogim zemljama najveći deo električne energije dobija se iz uglja, npr. u Srbiji je 62% svih kapaciteta za proizvodnju električne energije je u termoelektranama na ugalj, a 65% proizvedene električne energije dobija se iz ovih elektrana. U narednim decenijama težište daljih povećanja kapaciteta za proizvodnju električne energije biće na termoelektranama, što će zahtevati povećanje proizvodnje uglja. Povećani zahtevi za proizvodnjom uglja vode ka povećanju količine uglja i jalovine koju treba transportovati u okviru rudnika sistemom tračnih transportera, zbog čega se povećava njihova dužina i kapacitet, a time i instalisana snaga njihovih pogona. Zbog značajnih snaga pogona i po pravilu 24-časovnog rada od posebnog interesa je unapređenje energetske efikasnosti tračnih transportera. U različitim granama industrije, u kojima se proizvodi ili koristi rastresiti materijal, za transport se koriste različiti tipovi tračnih transportera, sa različitim konstruktivnim i pogonskim karakteristikama. Bez obzira na vrstu i organizaciju površinskog kopa, elektromotorni pogoni na rudarskoj mehanizaciji zbog velikih snaga, složenosti rudarske opreme i vrlo teških uslova rada predstavljaju izazov za primenu savremenih metoda pokretanja i upravljanja, u cilju povećanja efikasnosti rada, kao i energetske efikasnosti. Kod konvencionalnih sistema transportera, rastresiti materijal se transportuje stalnom, nazivnom brzinom. Pri nazivnom kapacitetu sistema površina poprečnog preseka materijala na traci je optimalna (maksimalna), odnosno traka je maksimalno popunjena. Međutim, istraživanja i statističke analize pokazuju da ovakvi sistemi zbog tehnologije kopanja bagera vrlo retko rade sa punim kapacitetom, odnosno da se veliki deo radnog vremena na trakama nalazi manja količina materijala od maksimalno moguće, pa čak i da prazan hod čini značajan deo radnog vremena sistema. Potrebna snaga za pokretanje sistema traka zavisi od količine transportovanog materijala, ali i od brzine kretanja traka. Imajući u vidu navedene činjenice, nameće se zaključak da je moguće transportovati materijal manjom brzinom od nazivne kada se na trakama nalazi manja količina materijala od maksimalno moguće, čime bi se smanjila trenutna snaga pogona, odnosno ostvarila značajna ušteda energije. Potrebna brzina kretanja traka se mora određivati u funkciji trenutne količine materijala na njima. Predmet ove doktorske disertacije je razvoj i primena algoritma za generisanje referentne brzine pojedinih transportera složenog sistema transportera. Na osnovu merenja površine poprečnog preseka materijala na ulazu u sistem tračnih transportera može se odrediti potrebna brzina kretanja traka koja će obezbediti stalnu optimalnu popunjenost svake trake u sistemu. Međutim, zbog značajnih varijacija količine dolazećeg materijala u sistem u vremenu ovakav način rada ne obezbeđuje energetski efikasan način rada, a i može dovesti do prekomernog habanja elemenata konstrukcije. Primenom različitih algoritama može se kontrolisati ubrzanje i usporenje trake, tako da se u okvirima ograničenja koja nameće sistem obezbedi minimalna potrošnja energije. U disertaciji su kombinovane teorijske, simulacione i eksperimentalne metode u cilju razvoja novog, originalnog algoritma kojim bi se ostvarilo povećanje energetske efikasnosti sistema, povećanje vremenskog i kapacitivnog iskorišćenja sistema, njegove pouzdanosti, produženje radnog veka opreme i smanjenje troškova održavanja. Pokazalo se da upravljanje primenom fazi logike predstavlja adekvatno rešenje, zbog svoje robusnosti i adaptivnosti, jednostavne primene i lakog podešavanja. Dokaz ispravnosti predložene ideje izveden je egzaktnim merenjima na postojećem postrojenju. Imajući u vidu navedene prednosti predloženog rešenja i dokazanu mogućnost uspešne primene, očekuje se da će se algoritam upravljanja sistemom tračnih transportera primeniti na sličnim postrojenjima u našoj zemlji, ali i u svetu, na površinskim kopovima sa kontinualnim načinom rada.
Electrical energy consumption is increasing globally in order to keep improving our quality of life. Energy efficiency is today one of the key elements in energy policy of all developed countries in the world, because it contributes to the improvement of economy globally and extends the lifetime of conventional energy sources, since the greatest part of total electrical energy is generated by fossil fuels. In many countries, most electrical energy comes from coal, for example in Serbia, 62% of all capacities for energy production is in thermal power plants which use coal, and they produce 65% of total electrical energy production. In the following decades, the focus will be on thermal power plants to further increase electrical energy capacities, requiring the rise of coal production. The growing demand for coal production leads to increased amounts of coal and overburden to be transported within the mine with belt conveyors systems. The length and the capacity are increasing causing the installed power of these systems to increase. Due to the large power of these drives and existing requirement for continuous operation, 24 hours per day, the improvement of energy efficiency of belt conveyors is naturally of significant interest. In various branches of industry where bulk materials are produced or used, various types of belt conveyors are used for the transport of materials, with different mechanical and drive characteristics. Despite of the type and the organization of the open pit mine, electrical drives on mining machines present a unique challenge to the application of modern techniques of driving and control, due to very large installed power, complexity of mining equipment and demanding environmental conditions, in order to increase the operational and energy efficiency. Conventional systems of conveyors transport bulk material at the constant, rated speed. When the system is at rated capacity, the cross section of material on the belt is at the maximum value, i.e. the belt is fully loaded. However, investigations and statistic analyses show that systems like this, due to technology of excavation very often work at reduced capacity. Most often the instantaneous cross section area of material on the belt is less than the rated value, and even no-load operation makes up a significant part of the system’s operational time. The necessary power for driving the system of belt conveyors depends on the quantity of transported material, as well as on the speed of the belts. Considering the aforementioned facts, the following conclusion can be made: since the belt conveyor often operates at a decreased capacity, the same quantity of material can be transferred at a lower than rated speed, leading to instantaneous power reduction, along with significant energy savings. The required speed of the belt must be determined as a function of the instantaneous quantity of material on the belt. The subject of this dissertation is the development and application of an algorithm for generating the reference speed of the belt conveyor drive in a complex system of belt conveyors. Based on measurements of instantaneous cross section area of material at the beginning of the system of belt conveyors, the required belt speed can be determined to provide that each belt in the system of belt conveyors will be constantly and optimally loaded. The instantaneous capacity changes quite frequently and sporadically, meaning that the speed should be increased and decreased in the same manner as the instantaneous capacity changes. These dynamic processes would be unfavorable for the mechanical assemblies of a belt conveyor, especially for the belt, and could lead to increased energy consumption. With the application of different control strategies, the acceleration and deceleration of a belt can be controlled in order to ensure minimum energy consumption under the existing technical constraints of the system. The dissertation combines theoretical, simulation and experimental methods, with the goal of developing a new, original algorithm to improve the energy efficiency of the system, capacitive utilization of the system, system reliability, extension of the service life of the equipment and reduction of costs for system maintenance. During the development of the control strategy, fuzzy logic control appeared to be a suitable solution for improving the energy efficiency of the system, due to its robust and adaptive characteristics, simple implementation and appropriate tuning procedure. The validation of the proposed idea is achieved through experimental results recorded on an existing system of belt conveyors in an open pit mine. Considering the indicated advantages of the proposed algorithm, as well as the proven opportunity of its successful implementation, it is expected that the algorithm for generating speed reference of the system of belt conveyors will be applied on similar systems in our country, as well as abroad, in open pit mines with continuous mining.

Датум

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Ауторство-Некомерцијално-Делити под истим условима 3.0 Србија (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

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http://eteze.bg.ac.rs/application/showtheses?thesesId=316

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application/pdf

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српски

Врста извора

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